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Unit 2.1 перевод юнита из книги Starlight 11 класс Баранова Дули
1) The pictures on pp. 38-39 were taken in Africa. Describe them. Why do you think people go on holiday there? How does tourism affect the people and the animals that live there? Read the text to find out.
Africa is a collection of some of the most amazing countries and cultures on earth. A vast and highly diverse continent full of fascinating cultures, dramatic scenery and extraordinary animals. Africa offers some of the most amazing travel experiences in the world.
2) Read the text. For statements 1-7, choose А, В, C or D to complete each statement correctly. Then translate the first two paragraphs into Russian.
As dawn breaks over the vast Serengeti an elephant herd slowly wanders to the side of the waterhole to drink, nearby a pride of lions is lazing in the dry yellow grass and a wild dog howls in the distance. The waterhole is a gathering place for the wildlife in this part of the Serengeti and for people, too. At night, the animal kingdom reigns over the area but the day brings tourists to photograph the wildlife, biologists to study the ecosystem and Masai tribesmen to water their herds of cattle. It appears that animals and humans are managing to live together in harmony in one of the last great wildlife refuges in Africa.
The name for the Serengeti comes from a Masai word that means ‘the place where the land runs on forever' but it may not be big enough for the Masai to continue their traditional way of life there for much longer. Although the Masai were once free to roam wherever they pleased, since 1959 they have been confined to one small part of the Serengeti ecosystem, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The area was established as a place where the Masai could continue with their nomadic lifestyle, where wildlife could be protected and tourism could flourish.
Wildlife and tourism are both doing very well but the same cannot be said for the Masai tribes. In the past fifty years the Masai population has increased from about 10,000 to over 50,000. The result is that there are too many people and too few resources to support the traditional Masai way of life. -The land available for them to graze their cattle is limited and they are only allowed to grow enough food to live on for fear that large scale farming will affect the area’s natural habitat.
The rise in the Masai population is also worrying because of how it might affect the animals in the conservation area. Herds of wildebeest, zebras and other animals travel through the Ngorongoro region on their migratory paths. Masai settlements, farms and grazing cattle could interfere with these important routes and conservationists do not want to cause any problems for the now growing numbers of animals in the area. So it’s the Masai who are being asked to move out of their homelands and to change their way of life, even though the conservation zone was originally created to be a multiple-use area not just for wildlife.
In the Masai village of Endulen women with shaved heads, gleaming silver jewellery and colourful red robes are busy washing clothes in the stream. Tall, spear-carrying warriors hiss at their cattle as they drive them down the dusty main street towards the only water supply in the village. There is a hospital, a school and a market in this village of 8,000 but there is no fresh water supply, only the stream. A stream that supplies all the needs of the people and animals for drinking, washing, cooking and bathing. It is without doubt the life source of this bustling community, a community which continues to grow year by year.
Yet the conservation authorities do not want to provide the Masai with a reliable water supply. This is because they do not want to encourage permanent settlements within the conservation area. As far as the authorities are concerned, the Masai are only allowed to live in the area as nomads who make light use of the land. If the Masai want to make the shift from a nomadic existence to a farming community with full amenities such as a water supply and electricity, then they should, once again, be moved out of the Ngorongoro region.
The Masai have other ideas, though. Namely that they have no intention of being moved on again. Although the old ways are slowly fading, they still keep their livestock and go out on the land, even if it is only for days at a time rather than months. In the village they work on vegetable plots outlawed by the authorities and live in permanent dwellings. The flowing traditional red robes and leather sandals are still worn by many Masai but you can also see trainers and T-shirts, too. As another cell phone starts to buzz it becomes obvious that the Masai are making the long, slow transition to a more modern way of life.
1) The impression the writer gives of this part of the Serengeti is that
A the animals rule in this region of Africa.
В people and wildlife exist peacefully there.
C there are too many people coming to the area.
D it is one of the few places to see wildlife in Africa.
2) The writer says the Masai way of life has changed because
A they have had to accept living with animals and tourists.
В the Serengeti is no longer large enough to support them.
C they are no longer allowed to go wherever they want.
D they cannot continue their traditions in the conservation area.
3) The writer feels the growing Masai population has caused problems for the tribe because
A it has made it very difficult to continue their traditions.
В they are unable to grow enough food to survive.
C there is too little room for them and the tourists.
D they do not have sufficient space to graze their cattle.
4) Conservationists want the Masai to move to another area because
A there has been a recent fall in the wildlife population.
В the conservation area was designed to protect animals.
C the wildlife could be a danger to their way of life.
D they could disturb the movements of the wildlife.
5) The writer is surprised that in the village of Endulen
A there are herds of cattle walking through the streets.
B the community’s water supply comes from a single source.
C the community cannot provide enough water for the residents.
D the women dress up before going to clean their clothes outside.
6) The writer uses the phrase ‘to make the shift’ (line 58) to mean
A a change in lifestyle.
В a move to a new area.
C the Masai have become farm owners.
D the tribe make too many demands.
7) The writer feels that the changes in the Masai community
A are noticeable and unavoidable.
В haven’t really affected their traditions.
C are happening much too fast.
D will result in the Masai moving again.
3) Fill in: conservation, breaks, support, use, live, grow, tourism, supply. Make sentences using the phrases.Then translate lines 1-21 into Russian.
The birds start singing at the break of dawn.
Life is better when it's lived in harmony
Scientific tourism flourishes in Costa Rica
Donate money to support wildlife.
Even if you have a small apartment or a small yard you can still grow quite a bit of food.
Conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological and/or cultural values
A clean water supply - in particular water that is not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation - is the single most important determinant of public health.
I am sure I can make good use of the gift you gave me.
4) Match the words in bold with their definitions. Then explain the underlined phrases.
• roads - routes
• housing - dwellings
• change - transition
• thrive - flourish
• means - resources
• facilities - amenities
• feed - graze
• restricted - confined
• made illegal - outlawed
• wander - roam
• rules - reigns
• everlasting - permanent
5) Listen as you read the text again and make notes under the headings below. Use your notes to give your classmates a summary of the text.
• reasons the Masai way of life has changed
• problems the Masai face
• the future for the Masai
Reasons the Masai way of life has changed: Serengeti is not big enough for the Masai, Masai population has increased dramatically.
Problems the Masai face: no cleam water supply,not enough place to live;
The future for the Masai: transition to a more modern way of life.
6) Spend three minutes writing about the problems the Masai face and what they should do.
The main solutions to the problems plaguing the Masai tribe is that the governments should secure prior informed consent from the communities that exist in these areas before beginning a development project, and then give them more control over the implementation of the project. Local control would give back to the community and would lessen the impacts of development because the locals would have more interest in preserving something they are actually benefiting from. However, with all the tour companies that exist today, local communities do not have the political or economic force to compete with these other corporations and their government.
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